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Food Sovereignty Movement Sprouts as Bison Return to Indigenous Communities
A woman in green shorts and a gray short-sleeved shirt with long brown hair digs in a garden while wearing garden gloves
Sophia Moreno (Aps谩alooke/Laguna Pueblo/Ojibwe-Cree) plants crops in the Indigenous gardens outside American Indian Hall on the Montana State University campus in Bozeman, Montana. (Adrian Sanchez-Gonzalez/Montana State University)

Food Sovereignty Movement Sprouts as Bison Return to Indigenous Communities

BOZEMAN, Mont. 鈥 Behind American Indian Hall on the Montana State University campus, ancient life is growing.

Six-foot-tall corn plants tower over large green squash and black-and-yellow sunflowers. Around the perimeter, stalks of sweetgrass grow.

The seeds for some of these plants grew for millennia in Native Americans鈥 gardens along the upper Missouri River. It鈥檚 one of several Native American ancestral gardens growing in the Bozeman area, totaling about an acre. Though small, the garden is part of a larger, multifaceted effort around the country to promote 鈥渇ood sovereignty鈥 for reservations and tribal members off reservation, and to reclaim aspects of Native American food and culture that flourished in North America for thousands of years before the arrival of European settlers. Restoring bison to reservations, developing community food gardens with ancestral seeds, understanding and collecting wild fruits and vegetables, and learning how to cook tasty meals with traditional ingredients are all part of the movement.

鈥淲e are learning to care for plant knowledge, growing Indigenous gardens, cultivating ancestral seeds 鈥 really old seeds from our relatives the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara: corn, beans, squash, and sunflowers,鈥 said Jill Falcon Ramaker, an assistant professor of community nutrition and sustainable food systems at Montana State. She is a member of the Turtle Mountain Band of Anishinaabe.

鈥淎 lot of what we are doing here at the university is cultural knowledge regeneration,鈥 she said.

But it also has a very practical application: to provide healthier, cheaper, and more reliable food supplies for reservations, which are often a long way from supermarkets, and where processed foods have helped produce an epidemic of diabetes and heart disease.

One woman in the foreground, wearing a baseball hat and plaid shirt, places a stake next to a small green plant in a garden. In the background, another woman holds two stakes in the garden.
Buffalo Nations student fellowship coordinators Sophia Moreno (Aps谩alooke/Laguna Pueblo/Ojibwe-Cree) (left) and Jacob Zimmerer work at the Indigenous gardens at American Indian Hall on the Montana State University campus. (Adrian Sanchez-Gonzalez/Montana State University)

Many reservations are food deserts where prices are high and processed food is often easier to come by than fresh food. , a 2020 paper funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, found that the median cost in the state of a collection of items typically purchased at a grocery store is 23% higher on a reservation than off.

鈥淲ith food sovereignty we are looking at the ability to put that healthy food and ancestral foods which we used to survive for thousands of years, putting those foods back on the table,鈥 Ramaker said. What that means exactly can vary by region, depending on the traditional food sources, from wild rice in the Midwest to salmon on the Pacific coast.

Central to the effort, especially in Montana, are bison, also referred to as buffalo. In 2014, 13 Native nations from eight reservations in the U.S. and Canada came together to sign the Buffalo Treaty, an agreement to return bison to 6.3 million acres that sought 鈥渢o welcome BUFFALO to once again live among us as CREATOR intended by doing everything within our means so WE and BUFFALO will once again live together to nurture each other culturally and spiritually.鈥

A photo of a woman smiling for the camera while canning hot sauce.
Maritza Arellano, a dietetic intern at Montana State University, works with the Buffalo Nations Food Systems Initiative to can hot sauce made from produce from an Indigenous garden in Bozeman, Montana.(Chere Jiusto for 素人色情片Health News)

Nearly a decade later, dozens of tribes have buffalo herds, including all seven reservations in Montana.

The buffalo-centered food system was a success for thousands of years, according to Ramaker, who directs both the regional program, known as the Buffalo Nations Food Systems Initiative 鈥 a collaboration with the Native American Studies Department and College of Education, Health and Human Development at Montana State 鈥 and the Montana-specific effort, known as the Montana Indigenous Food Sovereignty Initiative. It wasn鈥檛 a hand-to-mouth existence, she wrote in an article for Montana State, but a 鈥渒nowledge of a vast landscape, including an intimate understanding of animals, plants, season, and climate, passed down for millennia and retained as a matter of life and death.鈥

With bison meat at the center of the efforts, the BNFSI is working to bring other foods from the northern Plains Native American diet in line with modern palates.

The BNFSI has received a $5 million grant from the U.S. Department of Agriculture to carry out that work, in partnership with Nueta Hidatsa Sahnish College in New Town, North Dakota.

Two women and one man lean over an orange blanket laid in the grass beside a garden, looking at bags of seeds
From left to right, James Vallie (Aps谩alooke/Anishinaabe), Angela Bear Claw (Aps谩alooke), and Jill Falcon Ramaker (Anishinaabe) plant Native seeds in the Indigenous gardens at Montana State University on June 4, 2021.(Adrian Sanchez-Gonzalez/Montana State University)
A small green, leafy plant grows out of dirt in a garden.
A plant at the Indigenous gardens outside American Indian Hall on the Montana State University campus. (Adrian Sanchez-Gonzalez/Montana State University)
The tattooed hand of a woman, wearing a circular turquoise ring and a bracelet, digs in dirt in a garden.
Breana Halim茅 McCullough (Karuk) plants seeds of Native crops at Montana State University in Bozeman, Montana, on June 4, 2021. (Adrian Sanchez-Gonzalez/Montana State University)

Life on reservations is partly to blame for many Native people eating processed foods, Ramaker said. Food aid from the federal government, known as the Commodity Supplemental Food Program, has long been shipped to reservations in the form of boxes full of packaged foods. 鈥淲e were forced onto the reservations, where there was replacement food sent by the government 鈥 white flour, white sugar, canned meat, salt, and baking powder,鈥 she said.

processed foods contribute to chronic inflammation, which in turn leads to heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, which occurs at in Native Americans as it does in white people.

Studies show that people鈥檚 mental and physical health declines when they consume a processed food diet. 鈥淚n the last decade there鈥檚 a growing amount of research on the impact of good nutrition on suicide ideation, attempts, and completion,鈥 said KayAnn Miller, co-executive director of the Montana Partnership to End Childhood Hunger in Bozeman, who is also involved with the BNFSI.

A photo of a woman holding ears of corn to the camera.
Jill Falcon Ramaker, an assistant professor of community nutrition and sustainable food systems and director of the Buffalo Nations Food Systems Initiative at Montana State University, holds ears of corn grown from the seed of ancient varieties once raised by the Mandan, Hidatsa, and Arikara peoples along the Missouri River in North Dakota. With her right hand, she holds a bag of Mandan Red Clay corn. In her left is an ear each of Mandan Society and Hopi Black.(Chere Jiusto for 素人色情片Health News)

All Native American reservations in Montana now have community gardens, and there are at least eight gardens on the Flathead Reservation north of Missoula, home to the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes. The tribe is teaching members to raise vegetables, some of them made into soup that is delivered to tribal elders. This year members grew 5 tons of produce to be given away.

Ancestral seeds are part of the effort. Each year the BNFSI sends out 200 packets of seeds for ancestral crops to Indigenous people in Montana.

Creating foods that appeal to contemporary tastes is critical to the project. The BNFSI is working with Sean Sherman, the 鈥淪ioux Chef,鈥 to turn corn, meat, and other Native foods into appealing dishes.

Sherman founded the award-winning Owamni restaurant in Minneapolis and in 2020 opened the Indigenous Food Lab, through his nonprofit, North American Traditional Indigenous Food Systems. The lab, in downtown Minneapolis, is also a restaurant and an education and training center that creates dishes using only Indigenous foods from across the country 鈥 no dairy, cane sugar, wheat flour, beef, chicken, or other ingredients from what he calls the colonizers.

“We’re not cooking like it’s 1491,鈥 Sherman said last year on the NPR program 鈥淔resh Air,鈥 referring to the period before European colonization. 鈥淲e’re not a museum piece or something like that. We’re trying to evolve the food into the future, using as much of the knowledge from our ancestors that we can understand and just applying it to the modern world.” Among his signature dishes are bison pot roast with hominy and roast turkey with a berry-mint sauce and black walnuts.

The Bozeman-based nonprofit HRDC built a $29 million building with a state-of-the-art kitchen that will house the country鈥檚 second Indigenous food lab, Ramaker said. It will open next year and expand the ongoing work creating recipes, holding cooking workshops, and preparing cooking videos.

A man holds a spoon in his right hand over his cupped left hand as he stands in a restaurant kitchen wearing an apron
Chef Sean Sherman, the 鈥淪ioux Chef,鈥 prepares cricket at his award-winning Minneapolis restaurant, Owamni, on Feb. 3. In 2020, Sherman opened the Indigenous Food Lab, through his nonprofit, North American Traditional Indigenous Food Systems. (Jaida Grey Eagle for The Washington Post via Getty Images)

Angelina Toineeta, who is Crow, is studying the BNFSI at Montana State as part of her major in agriculture. 鈥淕rowing these gardens really stuck out to me,鈥 she said. 鈥淣ative American agriculture is something we鈥檝e lost over the years, and I want to help bring that back.鈥

颁辞谤谤别肠迟颈辞苍:听This article was revised at 6 p.m. ET on Dec. 18, 2023, to correctly identify the organization that built the facility to house the Indigenous food lab in Bozeman, and to clarify how it will be used.